Emergency #21 – Long case

A 21-year-old male:
* Collapse twice
* Loss of strength of right arm
* Trouble finding words
* Headache

What are the CT Findings?

CT Findings

* No abnormalities were seen.
* No bleeding.
* No signs of recent ischemia.

Patient develops fever. Cannot bend his neck properly. When asked, he has been traveling recently to Thailand

What further imaging could help us?

What are the MRI findings?

MRI findings

* Two areas left frontal and left parietal with T2/FLAIR hyperintense swelling/edema of cortex and subcortical white matter, with diffusion restriction and patchy, gyriform cortical enhancement
* Diffusely leptomeningeal enhancement
* No ring-enhancing lesions. No white matter vasogenic or cytotoxic edema

What is the most likely diagnosis?

Diganosis

Cerebritis (precursor of abscess) and meningitis. Not yet an abscess

Note: Encephalitis means inflammation of PARENCHYMA

Differential diagnosis of meningitis:
* Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis
* Sarcoidosis and other granulomatous diseases
* Vasculitis
* Connective tissue diseases

Viral inflammatory cause for symptoms was confirmed with lumbar puncture and patient was treated with IV anti-viral treatment.

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