Musculoskeletal #24

48-year-old male:
– Heavy smoker
– Depressive syndrome

Found lying unconscious at home, in lateral position (opioid overdose)
Erythema and limited movement of the left shoulder
Blood test: CK 7949 u/l. Negative blood and aspiration cultures (no infection)

What do you see?

Findings

CT: Low attenuation area involving the posterior aspect of the deltoid muscle and the lateral aspect of the pectoralis major muscle. Superficial and deep fascia edema. No enhancing walls neither gas is seen.

MRI: Postcontrast T1FS images show hypointense unenhancing central muscle fibers surrounded by thick rim enhancement involving the posterior deltoid, teres minor, and pectoralis major muscles . Thickened and hyperenhancing adjacent fascia and reactive muscle edema are also noted.

What is the most likely diagnosis?

Rhabdomyolysis (type 2: myonecrosis)
– Injury to skeletal muscle that involves leakage of large quantities of potentially toxic substances into plasma.
– Type 1: homogeneous signal changes and contrast enhancement. Ischemic or reversible ischemic reaction.
– Type 2: homogeneous or heterogeneous signal changes and rim enhancement. Irreversible muscular necrosis (myonecrosis).

– Deep tissue injury: severe pressure ulcer, characterized by necrotic tissue mass under intact skin.

– CK > 1000 – 5000 iu/l “cut-off”.

– Risk factors: postoperative patients (position), obesity, male gender, diabetes, surgical bleeding…

Abdominal #10

82-yearold patient:
– Presenting with hematuria

What is the most likely diagnosis?

Enhancing mass in the left renal pelvis, most likely TCC

What is the treatment?

Left total nephroureterectomy and bladder cuff excision

Microscopy result: Transitional Cell Carcinoma of 2,5 cm in the renal pelvis, low grade.
TNM classification Pyelum-Ureter (8th edition UICC): pTa.

Teaching Points

Teaching points

– The vast majority of renal pelvis and ureter tumours are transitional cell carcinoma (> 90%), the remainder of tumours are squamous cell carcinoma (< 10%) and adenocarcinoma (< 1%) Transitional cell carcinoma much more commonly occurs in the bladder than in the renal pelvis or ureter - Synchronous and metachronous tumours are frequent because TCC is caused by toxic exposure through for example cigarette smoking - TCC of the renal pelvis can spread to the kidney and intraluminal seeding to more caudal parts of the ureter and to the bladder is common => always look for other space occupying lesions

– For these reasons, an excretory phase is always useful when a kidney mass is suspected, as TCC’s represent 10 to 15% of renal tumours

– CT scan protocol: non enhanced CT, enhanced CT (70-90 sec), delayed phase (10-15 mins)

Emergency #33

83-year-old female:
– Acute loss of function right arm and leg
– Bleeding? Ischemia?

What is the most likely diagnosis?

Dense left medial cerebral artery with subtle obscuring of grey-white matter interface temporal operculum of insula; early ischemia.

CTA: Occlusion M1 Patient received IV thrombolysis and her symptoms improved

Musculoskeletal #23

89-year-old patient with groin mass

What do you see?

Imaging Findings

Agressive isquion mass with bone destruction, soft tissue component, necrosis and osteid matrix.

In the staging CT: Vertebral and skull signs of paget disease (Bone marrow heterogenity with lytic and sclerotic foci, cortical thikening and bone expansion; as well as partial pagetiic spinal block)

What is the most likely diagnosis?

Diagnosis

Pagetic secondary osteosarcoma on a patient with polyostotic bone paget.

Teaching Points

Osteosarcoma hallmarks are agressive bone mass with osteoid matriz.It can be primary or secondary (mainly on pagetic or radiated bone)
.

Emergency #32

53-year-old male:
– Hemodialysis patient
– Presents with a very large scrotum, size of a football
– Patient is not sick, no fever
– Laboratory results are normal
– US: Incarcerated inguinal hernia? Hydrocele? Malignancy?

What is the most likely diagnosis?

Diagnosis: Extensive scrotal lymphoedema

– Extensive scrotal wall thickening associated with diffuse lymphoedema extending to the base of penis not involving the penile corpora
– No extension into the deep subcutaneous tissue planes, inguinal canal, or muscles
– No extension to the groin or lower abdomen
– No inguinal adenopathy
– Both testicles are morphologically normal with no associated hydroceles
– There is no associated soft-tissue mass

Neuroradiology #31

56-years-old female:
* Fever and seizures

What do you see?

Click here to see the answer

HERPES SIMPLEX ENCEPHALITIS

See the characteristic ABRUPT SPARING OF THE BASAL GANGLIA WITH THEIR “BORDERS THAT CAN BE DRAWN WITH A FINE-POINT PEN”.

Other tips:

* Temporal (with anterior and medial predominance) and insular> frontal (with basal predominance) and cingular
* Not rare bilateral
* Look for SAH foci near the silvian fissures

Musculoskeletal #22

What do you see?

Click here to see the answer

Vertebral hemangioma with thickened trabeculae and fat foci inside the lesion, without soft tissue component with an associated pathological fracture.

TEACHING POINTS:
Bone hemangiomas are very frequent, atypical presentations and complications (like in this cases with soft tissue component and pathological fracture) are rare but radiologist must be aware of them to be able to make the correct diagnosis.

Neuroradiology #30

A 6-year-old boy presenting to emergency department with headache, nausea, and vomiting

What do you see?

Intra-axial cystic lesion with mass effect shows CSF signal intensity on all sequences, without enhancement and perilesional edema

Differential diagnosis include

* Parasitic diseases (hydatid cyst) spheric
* Neuroglial cyst may have surrounding gliosis
* Porencephalic cyst surrounding gliosis, communicates with ventricle

Same cystic lesion in superior lobe of left lung

What is the most likely diagnosis?

Hydatid cyst disease
Both lesions were treated by surgery