– Known breast cancer
– Arm paresis and soft-tissue lump
What are the salient findings?
Left: NECT, bone algorithm. Aggressive-like bone lesion with permeative pattern and hair on end periosteal reaction
Right: MRI T1 post-Gd. Associated trans-diploic soft-tissue mass with extracranial and intracranial-extraaxial components. Solid, homogeneous and avidly enhancing. Contiguous dural thickening and enhancement.
What is the differential diagnosis?
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS FOR TRANS-DIPLOIC SKULL VAULT LESION WITH AGGRESSIVE-LIKE BONE AFFECTATION
– Always consider in older patients
– Multiplicity and known primary
Varies depending on tumor type and aggressiveness
– Lytic: Most tumor types
– Permeative: Highly cellular and small-round cell tumors (PNET, small cell lung, lymphoma)
– Sclerotic/mixed: Prostate, breast. Less frequently: Transitional cell, neuroendocrine, PNET
– Hypervascular: Renal cell, melanoma, thyroid, hepatocarcinoma, lung, neuroendocrine
Possible soft-tissue components
LYTIC AGGRESSIVE BONE LESION/S IN PATIENT >40 years old. METASTASES vs MYELOMA
MULTIPLE MYELOMA (MM)/SOLITARY PLASMOCYTOMA
MULTIPLE MYELOMA (MM)/SOLITARY PLASMOCYTOMA
– Affects older patients (median 68-70 years). Very rare under 40 years (<10%)
MM 4 patterns of bone involvement
– Diffuse lytic bone infiltration simulating osteopenia
– Multiple focal lytic well-defined lesions
– Solitary plasmacytoma
– Sclerotic bone lesions (exclusively associated with POEMS sd)
Solitary plasmacytoma in the skull: lytic, aggressive trans-diploic, soft tissues, and hypervascular aspect
– 7% of all bone malignancy; 5% of extranodal lymphoma
– All ages; predominates in adults (peak 50-60 years); men/women 1.5:1
– Secondary dissemination >>> primary bone lymphoma
– Imaging characteristics of a hypercellular small round cell tumour
– Trans-diploic permeative bone pattern and abundant of tissue components (small round blue cells spread through Haversian canals conditioning a striking relatively little bone destruction in comparison to important soft-tissue lesions)
– Hyperdensity on NECT, T2 hypodensity and striking diffusion restriction on DWI (all signs related to hypercellularity)
– Homogenous enhancement
– No or little necrosis
– Most common primary high-grade bone sarcoma
– Bimodal distribution: 10-14 and >40 years old
– Extremely rare in the skull in adults, and much more frequently arising from coexisting Paget’s disease> >previously irradiated bone> or bone infarction
– Clinically, quickly growing painful mass
– Destructive, aggressive lesion, with periosteal reaction, soft tissue-mixed lytic-blastic component. May show “fluffy”, “cloud-like” osteoid matrix.
– Most common brain tumor (36% of all brain tumors)
– Predilection for middle-aged females
– Can produce neurologic symptoms due to compression
– Most do not infiltrate bone, but when they do it, the hyperostosis is very specific, virtually pathognomonic
– Intra-diploic or trans-diploic meningiomas are less frequent
*Even the great specificity of the hyperostosis, bone involvement can be VERY VARIABLE including aggressive-like lysis and periosteal reactions that do not exclude or go against the diagnostic
Ddx: Hemangiopericytoma (Solitary Fibrous Tumor New WHO 2016 classification). Younger, frequently male patients. Osteolysis possible, but NO hyperostosis. NO calcifications. The rest of imaging features identical to meningioma, differentiation is very difficult and challenging
EXAMPLES OF THE MULTIPLE FACES OF MENINGIOMAS AND THEIR BONE INVOLVEMENT. REMEMBER, POLYMORPHISM IS AN IMPORTANT FEATURE OF THIS ENTITY
With all the information mentioned above:
Could meningiomas condition aggress periosteal reaction? Does it go against its diagnosis
Meningiomas are very frequent, specially in middle-aged woman, if all or the vast majority of features favour this diagnosis, a relatively atypical bone affectation (lysis, periosteal reaction instead of the virtually pathognomonic hyperostosis) may not change the diagnostic orientation.
Bonus clues and some advance imaging pearls
Diffusion: Striking restriction in lymphomas Perfusion: Striking high rCBV in meningiomas Spectroscopy: Alanine (and GLX) in meningiomas. Striking high Cho in lymphoma and plasmacytoma. Striking high lipids in metastases
Back to the case:
ARE THE ADVANCED IMAGING TECHNIQUES HELPFUL?
FINAL DIAGNOSIS: MENINGIOMA (WHO GRADE 2)
TAKE HOME MESSAGE REGARDING MENINGIOMA
– Very frequent, specially middle-aged women
– Important to know the classic characteristic features, some of them are very specific; but recognize the great polymorphism/many faces of this entity
– Advanced imaging can be helpful
– Not all the lesions in a neoplastic patient are metastases
– 66-year-old female:
– Feels a lump in the neck when swallowing
In what space houses this lesion?
Mass in the right parapharyngeal space or deep part of parotid space. No parapharyngeal fat is visible, so either the lesion displaces the fat or it arises from it. It is certainly not from the carotid space, since the carotid arteries are displaced posteriorly. It is also not from the mucosal space since it compresses the lateral oropharyngeal wall, instead of arising from it.
Do you want further imaging to make a diagnosis and what?
MRI will provide you more details in head and neck lesions where the lesion arises from exactly, and what the origin is. MRI is made with T1, T2, and T1 with Gad and fat suppression.
What is your differential diagnosis?
Origin from deep parotid lobe, so DD benign or malignant salivary gland tumor, such as pleiomorphic adenoma, adenoid cystic of mucoepidermoid cell carcinoma. Radiologists are not good in differentiating benign from malignant lesions on MRI. Histopathology has to be done. DWI will help you a little, in that, malignant lesions have often lower ADC values, but also Wharthin tumors do so. DD rare schwannoma arises from V3 (mandibular nerve) in the true parapharyngeal space.
We performed ultrasound and cytologic punction. This turned out to be a fairly rare acinic cell carcinoma.
Teaching point: Malignant tumors of the salivary glands are well delineated and do not have to present as ill-defined lesions, nor have to have lymph node metastasis or perineural spread.
Diagnosis: Sigmoid diverticulitis, no signs of complications/perforation such as air bubbles outside bowel lumen or paracolic abscess. Reactive bowel wall thickening (always be aware of underlying carcinoma!)
Name the three coincidental findings:
1. Gall stones
2. Right adrenal mass, DD metastasis from 3. or adenoma
3. Right interpolar solid mass, suspect for renal cell carcinoma
72-year-old alcoholic patient with intractable dorsal pain and legs numbness and weakness.
What do you see?
Click here to see the answer
Thoracic spine compression fracture with posterior displacement of the posterior wall of the vertebral body compromising the spinal canal, cord compression and associated myelopathy. T2W image shows fluid and hypointense bubble-like artifact consistent with vacuum cleft in the collapsed anterior vertebral body
Kümmel disease (osteonecrosis and collapse of the vertebral body)
Intravertebral vacuum cleft and fluid within the collapsed vertebral body is a characteristic feature
Differential diagnosis includes a pathologic (tumoral) fracture, and the presence of air strongly favors osteonecrosis
Would you like to see a complementary case?
MR T2-weighted and CT images to highlight the characteristic features of Kümmel disease
Intravertebral fluid seen on T2 image and air on CT image
A 24-year-old female patient with headache. What do you see?
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Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor (MVNT): Cortical ribbon-juxtacortical T2 hyperintense (a-b) round to oval nodular lesions, not suppressed on FLAIR images (c) and usually no enhancement (d) may show fair enhancement rarely, without diffusion restriction (not shown)
– LCH is characterised by idiopathic infiltration and accumulation of abnormal histiocytes within various tissues.
– Bone is the most commonly affected tissue in children, with a predilection for axial bones, and femur is the most commonly affected long bone.
– Radiographic appearance of the lesions depends on the site of involvement and the phase of the disease.
– Skull: Calvarium is more affected than the skull base, typically seen as single or multiple well-defined lytic lesions on radiography; T1 hypointense, T2 hyperintense with significant enhancement on MRI. Temporal bone is the most common affected part of skull base seen as destructive lesions with a soft tissue component.
– Spine: Vertebral bodies are affected with relative sparing of posterior elements. A typical vertebra plana appearance may be encountered with total collapse.
– Long bones: Ill-defined lytic lesions with/without cortical destruction are seen usually located at diaphysis or metaphysis. Periosteal reaction may be present. Extensive bone marrow and soft tissue signal changes on MRI may also be helpful in the diagnosis.
4 images of the right shoulder were obtained (axillar, Y-view, internal rotation, external rotation)
Click here to see the images
Right shoulder: There is a nondisplaced fracture involving the inferior aspect of the glenoid, with involvement of the articular surface. Glenohumeral joint shows normal alignment. Acromioclavicular joint is normal. No soft-tissue calcification. No fracture or dislocation
What is the most likely diagnosis?
The most likely diagnosis is Hill-Sachs lesion
Hill-Sachs lesions are a posterolateral humeral head compression fracture. Typically occurs secondary to recurrent anterior shoulder dislocations. It is often associated with a Bankart lesion of the glenoid
These lesions are best seen following relocation of the joint. It appears as a sclerotic line running vertically from the top of the humeral head towards the shaft. A wedge defect may be evident in large lesions. The lesions are better appreciated on internal rotation views