Cáceres’ Corner Case 250 – SOLVED

Dear Friends,

Welcome to the year 2021! Beginning with an easy case: chest radiographs of a 76-year-old man with pain in the left hemithorax.

What do you see?

More images will be shown on Wednesday.

Click here to see Monday images


Dear friends, showing today CT images of the chest and abdomen.
What do you think?

Click here to see more images


Click here to see the answer

Findings: PA radiograph shows a well-defined opacity in the right apex (A, arrow). The posterior arch of the third rib is missing (A, asterisk). These findings were not present in a previous radiograph taken five years earlier (B).

Lateral view shows a posterior extrapulmonary mass (C, arrow), better seen in the cone down view (D, arrow).

The findings are indicative of a lytic rib lesion accompanied by an extrapulmonary mass. The most likely etiology in the adult is a malignant process, either metastasis or myeloma. A benign process such as fibrous dysplasia usually increases the size and the density of the bone. The location and the well-defined border goes against a Pancoast tumor.

Axial and sagittal CTs confirm the extrapulmonary mass (E-F, arrows) as well as the destroyed third rib (F, circle).

Axial CT of the upper abdomen demonstrates a mass in the tail of the pancreas (G, circle). Needle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma.

Final diagnosis: pancreatic carcinoma with metastases to the left third rib

Congratulations to Mestasmarcos who was the first to suggest metastasis in the plain film.
 
Teaching point: Remember that a lytic rib lesion in the adult should be considered malignant (metastasis vs myeloma) until proven otherwise.

Cáceres’ Corner Case 249

Dear Friends,

today I am presenting the PA chest radiograph of a 77-year-old man who came to the Emergency Room with severe dyspnea.

How many significant findings do you see?

1. One
2. Two
3. Three
4. Four

Click here to see the answer

Findings: AP chest radiograph shows an opaque left hemithorax with displacement of the mediastinum towards the right. The splenic flexure of the colon is pushed downwards (A, arrow) a sign of left diaphragmatic inversion. The appearance of the chest is typical of a massive left pleural effusion. In addition, there are two nodular opacities in the right lung (A, red arrows). There is a lytic lesion of the left third rib (A, white arrow) and the anterior arch is missing (A, asterisk).

These findings are better seen in the cone down views (B-C, arrows). They are highly suggestive of widespread malignant disease.
 
The patient had a cardiac arrest in the ER and could not be reanimated. Autopsy demonstrated a gastric carcinoma with multiple metastases.

Final diagnosis: Metastases to the chest from carcinoma of the stomach

Congratulations to Rafał, who was the first to see the lytic lesion in the left third rib.
 
Teaching point: Although the main finding is very obvious (massive pleural effusion), detecting the nodules and the lytic lesion of the rib is the clue to the correct diagnosis of malignancy.
Remember satisfaction of search!

Cáceres’ Corner Case 248 – SOLVED

Dear Friends,

today I am showing preop radiographs for knee surgery of a 71-year-old man.
What do you see?

More images will be shown on Wednesday.

Click here to see new images

Dear friends, showing additional images of the sternum taken six years earlier, in 2014.
What do you think?

Click here to see the answer

Findings: PA chest is unremarkable (A). The lateral radiograph shows an expanding lytic lesion in the sternal manubrium (B, circle).

Cone down view shows the lesion better (C, arrows). Sagittal, coronal and axial unenhanced CT taken six years earlier (2014) demonstrate that the cortical bone is broken in several places, suggesting an aggressive process (D-F, arrows). A soft-tissue mass is not visible.

No other skeletal lesions were found. Biopsy of the sternum confirmed the diagnosis of solitary myeloma (plasmocytoma), that was subsequently treated. The patient remained asymptomatic.
 
Final diagnosis: Plasmocytoma of the sternum
 
Congratulations to Priyanka Chhabra and Olena, who made the correct diagnosis. And kudos to all of you who saw the lesion in the lateral chest radiograph.
 
Teaching point: Remember that a lytic lesion of the sternum in an adult is malignant until proven otherwise. Main etiologies are primary tumors (chondrosarcoma) and metastases.

Reviewing the literature, I found a case report with similar findings: Solitary plasmacytoma of the sternum with a spiculated periosteal reaction: A case report. ONCOLOGY LETTERS 9: 191-194, 2015

Cáceres’ Corner Case 247 – SOLVED

Dear Friends,

Today´s radiographs belong to a 53-year-old man with abdominal pain.
What do you think?

Dear Friends,

showing today axial and coronal CI images of the abdomen. What do you think?

Click here to see new images

Click here to see the answer

Findings: PA and lateral chest radiographs show a large gastric bubble, with abundant stomach contents (A, arrow). In addition, there is a prominent air-fluid level in the right upper quadrant (A-B, red arrows), A small rounded metallic opacity is projected over it in the lateral view (B, circle).
The findings are suggestive of gastric outlet obstruction. Duodenal obstruction is unlikely because the second air-fluid level is anterior in the lateral projection. The little rounded metallic opacity suggests the possibility of a foreign object.

Coronal and axial CT show a food-filled stomach with a balloon located in the antrum (C-D, arrows).

Upright abdominal radiograph (E), parallels the gastric findings in the coronal CT (F).
(Showing plain film of the abdomen as an homage to Dr Genchi Bari).
 
A gastric balloon for obesity had been placed two weeks earlier.

Final diagnosis: balloon causing stomach outlet obstruction. This complication occurs in less than 1% of cases (*).
 
Congratulations to Olena, who was the only one to see the balloon valve and to Archanereddyt who made the final diagnosis.
 
Teaching point: as stated in case 242, always include iatrogenesis in your differential diagnosis. Reviewing the literature I discover an interesting fact: the saline in the balloons is tinted blue. If the urine becomes blue or green, is a sign of balloon deflation.
 
Incidentally, malicious rumors about the radiographs belonging to Miss Piggy are totally false!
 
(*) Gastric outlet obstruction secondary to orbera intragastric balloon. SA Kook and J Hammond. JSCR 2018; 10: 1-3

Cáceres’ Corner Case 246 – SOLVED

Dear Friends,

Today I am showing the PA radiograph of an 82-year-old woman. Preoperatory for cataracts.

What do you think about the right hilum?

1. Calcified TB nodes
2. Sarcoidosis
3. Amyloid
4. None of the above

More images will be shown on Wednesday.

Click here to see the images shown on Monday


Dear friends, showing today PA and lateral radiographs taken two years earlier. Hope they help.

Click here to see the new images

Click here to see the answer

Findings: Initial PA radiograph shows opacities in the right hilum (A, circle), unchanged in comparison with a previous film taken two years earlier (B, circle).

The clue to the diagnosis lies in the density and appearance of the opacities. They are denser than the typical lymph node calcifications, suggesting that they are metallic. In addition, some of them look tubular or branching (C, red arrows). A lateral view taken two years earlier confirms dense lineal and branching opacities in right lung (D, arrows).
The combination of linear and branching metallic opacities suggests that they are either in the bronchi (previous bronchography) or within the pulmonary vessels (embolism after vertebroplasty o treatment of AV malformation). See Diploma # 44.

Lateral view of the lumbar spine shows surgical changes with vertebroplasty of L3 to L5 and leakage of the cement into the epidural veins (E, arrows), better seen in the sagittal CT (F, arrows).

Unenhanced CT confirms multiple cement emboli in the pulmonary arteries (G-J, circles)

Final diagnosis: cement embolization of the lung after vertebroplasty
 
I must mention Olena and Ayudi who suggested amyloid and broncholithiasis but failed to notice the metallic opacity of the findings.
 
Teaching point: Consider previous vertebroplasty when you see metallic opacities in the lungs. It is a common complication.

Cáceres’ Corner Case 245 – SOLVED

Dear friends, Dr Pepe has eloped with Miss Piggy (again) and has let me alone, holding the fort. Hope he will be back in time to give the next webinar.

Today’s radiographs belong to a 60-year-old male with cough and moderate dyspnea.

Diagnosis:

1. Hilar lymphadenopathy
2. Right pulmonary artery aneurysm
3. Mediastinal tumor
4. None of the above

Click here to see the answer

Findings: PA and lateral chest radiographs show a right hilar mass (A-B, arrows). In my opinion, the appearance of the mass and its location in the right hilum in the lateral view rules out a mediastinal mass.
There is a small nodule in the RUL (A, red arrow) that can be overlooked unless we look for it

The nodule is better seen in the cone down view and the axial CT (C-D, red arrows), with high SUV in the PET-CT (E, arrow), accompanied by a metastatic node in the mediastinum (E, circle).

Caudal slices of enhanced CT show multiple lymph nodes in right hilum (F, arrow) and mediastinum (G, circle).

Biopsy of a lymph node returned as metastatic carcinoma.

Final diagnosis: carcinoma of the lung with mediastinal metastases

Congratulations to archanareddyt who was the only one to discover the RUL nodule

Teaching point: this is an interesting case for educational purposes.
1. Knowing the most common causes of unilateral hilar enlargement (lymph nodes vs. enlarged artery) helps the differential diagnosis.
2. We should think of common processes rather than unusual ones (lymph nodes vs. aneurysm).
3.  Suspecting unilateral hilar lymph nodes leads to search for the two more common etiologies (TB or carcinoma) leading to the discovery of the RUL nodule.

Hope the case was useful!

Cáceres’ Corner Case 244 – SOLVED

Dear friends I am presenting today the pre-op PA chest radiograph of a 40-year-old man.
What do you see?

More images will be shown on Wednesday.

Click here to see more images

Dear friends, showing today images of the barium swallow. What do you think?

The answer will be published on Friday 🙂


Click here to see the answer

Findings: PA radiograph shows convexity of the middle aspect of the right mediastinal border (A, arrow). There is a double contour in the opposite side (A, red arrow). These two lines conform the limits of a rounded mass which is better seen in the penetrated AP radiograph (B, arrows).

An outside CT (not available) confirmed a middle mediastinal mass. Esophageal diverticulum was included in the differential diagnoses (??) and for this reason a barium swallow was done.

AP view of the esophagogram shows a large mass deforming the esophagus (C, circle). Oblique view demonstrates the typical appearance of a submucosal mass of the esophageal wall (D, circle). Endoscopy confirmed an intact mucosa.
A large intramural esophageal tumor that looks like an alien was resected (E, insert)

Final diagnosis: leiomyoma of esophagus.
 
Congratulations to Traidor who made the diagnosis before the barium study and to Genchi Bari, after.

Teaching point: I am showing this case to review basic concepts of paleo-radiology (before CT), when we used to classify GI tumors according to the appearance of the filling defect in the barium column.

A represents an intraluminal mass (polyps and carcinomas, usually)

B is the typical appearance of a submucosal intramural mass (looks like an extrapulmonary lesion in the chest radiograph). Usually due to benign spindle-cell tumors or duplication cyst. Rarely metastasis.

C represents the deformity secondary to an extrinsic mass

Cáceres’ Corner Case 243 – SOLVED

Dear Friends,

Today’s radiographs belong to a 59-year-old man with two week’s history of chest pain and moderate dyspnea.

What do you see? Come back on Friday to see the answer!

Click here to see the answer

Findings: PA radiograph shows a diffuse opacity of left lung (A, asterisk) which obscures the heart border. A luftsichel sign is visible (A, circle). The left hilum is augmented, and the left main bronchus has a horizontal path (A, red arrow). The left hemidiaphragm is elevated and a juxtaphrenic peak sign is visible (A, yellow arrow).
The lateral view shows a horizontal retro-sternal band (B, arrows) and a typical donut sign (B, circle).

Donut sign is more obvious when comparing with a normal previous chest film
(C-D, circles).

This case is a compendium of typical signs of LUL collapse. As you all know, the most common cause is bronchogenic carcinoma, which in this case is confirmed by detecting enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes (donut sign).
Enhanced CT demonstrates the LUL collapse (E-F, asterisks), a mass occluding the bronchus (E-F, red arrows) and subcarinal adenopathy (E-F, arrows).

Final diagnosis: carcinoma of LUL bronchus with lobar collapse and mediastinal metastases.

Cáceres’ Corner Case 242 – SOLVED

Dear friends, welcome back!

Today I am showing a straightforward case to ease you into the new season. Promise I will not mention Covid-19 at all.

Today’s case is a pre op PA radiograph for knee surgery in a 47-year-old woman.

What do you see?

Come back on Friday to see the answer!

Click here to see the answer

Lung and mediastinum do not show any relevant findings. An isolated air-fluid level is visible in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen (A, arrow). The inner border of the cavity is smooth. The gastric bubble is visible under the left hemidiaphragm (A, red arrow).

Given that the patient is asymptomatic, an abdominal abscess or bowel obstruction/ volvulus can be safely excluded. A large intestinal diverticulum could be a possibility. I suspected a more mundane diagnosis: a review of the clinical history discovered that an intragastric balloon had been inserted fourteen months earlier.

Final diagnosis: air-fluid level in an intragastric balloon for morbid obesity
 
Congratulations to all of you who detected the air-fluid level. Kudos to Flemming Ghomsen who came close to the diagnosis.

Intragastric balloons for bariatric surgery may be filled with air or with saline. In the second case they may present an air-fluid level due to room air mixing during the injection of fluid.
 

Teaching points:


1. Remember to look under the diaphragm. You may discover interesting findings.
2. In your differential diagnosis always include iatrogenesis as a possible cause.

Cáceres’ Corner Case 241 – SOLVED

Dear Friends,

Today’s radiographs belong to a 24-year-old woman with cough and fever. What do you see?

More images will be shown next Wednesday and the answer will be published on Friday.

Click here to see Monday images


Dear Friends,

Showing today CT images of the chest. What do you think?

Click here to see the new images

Click here to see the answer

Findings: Chest radiographs show air-space disease in the right lower lobe (A-B, arrows). There is marked widening of the right paratracheal line (A, red arrow) suggestive of mediastinal lymphadenopathy.

Axial CT with lung window shows RLL air-space disease without cavitation (C, arrow). Mediastinal window at different levels confirms enlarged paratracheal, subcarinal and neck lymph nodes with hypodense center (D-F, red arrows). These findings should suggest active tuberculosis as the first possibility.
Although TB usually affects upper lobes, isolated involvement of lower lobes occurs in about 7% of cases.
 
Mycobacterium tuberculosis was found in the sputum.

Final diagnosis: active TB.
 
Congratulations to Archanareddyt who was the first to make the diagnosis.
 
 Teaching point: lymph nodes with hypodense center may occur in several processes (treated tumors, Whipple’s, etc.), but in the appropriate clinical situation, the first diagnostic consideration should be tuberculosis.