Cardiac #3

Clinical Data: 70-year-old male, asymptomatic, incidental finding on chest X-ray

What are the findings:

What are the findings:

Enlargement of the left coronary artery (LAD) and right coronary artery (RCA) with peripheral thrombus
within both vessels diagnostic of coronary artery aneurysms.

What is the most likely diagnosis:

What is the most likely diagnosis?

Coronary artery aneurysm:

Definition: coronary dilatation which exceeds the diameter of normal adjacent segments or the diameter of the patient’s largest coronary vessel by 1.5 times
Etiology: Atherosclerosis, genetic, autoimmune/inflammatory, infectious
Clinical Presentation: mostly clinically silent
Complications: local thrombosis > distal embolization and myocardial infarction; aneurysm rupture > cardiac tamponade; myocardial stenosis
Treatment: percutaneous or surgical

Abdominal #23

Clinical Data: 44-year-old patient with stomach pain and belching

Showing USG of the upper abdomen (stomach)

Showing Upper GI contrast study

Showing Abdomen CT:

Describe the findings in detail

Describe the findings in detail

US: Small capacity partially distensible stomach with appreciable wall thickening

·The stomach is not distended adequately
·A narrow lumen identified
·The normal mucosal fold pattern is distorted, thickened, and nodular

CT Scan:
·Small calcification in spleen
·No diverticulae
·No lymph nodes
·No ascites

Differential diagnosis includes:

Differential diagnosis

(1) Neoplastic
·Gastric adenocarcinoma (scirrhous)
(2) Lymphoma
(3) Diffuse gastric diverticula (rare)
(4) Inflammatory
·Granulomatous disease
(5) Scarring (e.g., Ingestion of corrosives)
(6) Gastric amyloidosis

What is your provisional diagnosis?

Provisional diagnosis

Linitis plastica
Linitis plastica is the term attributed to the specific appearances of the stomach.
The stomach is small, non-distensible with a diffusely thickened wall, the appearance referred to as like a traditional water bottle.
The underlying cause is almost always a scirrhous adenocarcinoma with diffuse submucosal infiltration, which contributes to the thickening and rigidity to the stomach wall observed on CT or endoscopy.

Gastric lymphoma


Cardiac #2

Clinical Data: Young adult with chest pain.

What do you see?

What do you see?

Intra-arterial course of the right coronary artery (RCA). RCA arises from left coronary sinus (not depicted) and passes between aorta and pulmonary trunk.

List at least three other potentially life-threatening congenital coronary artery defects.

List at least three other potentially life-threatening congenital coronary artery defects.

-Anomalous aortic origin of coronary artery (AAOCA)
-Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery originating from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA)
-Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery originating from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA)
-Single coronary artery
-Hypoplastic right coronary artery
-Congenital coronary artery ostial stenosis or atresia
-Anomalous circumflex coronary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery (ACARPA)


Congenital coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) are often incidental findings. They can be classified as CAAs of origin, course, and of termination. Although they are rare and most of them are benign variants, some are associated with an increased risk of myocardial ischemia, so recognizing and reporting them is substantial.

References and further reading:

1. Gentile F, Castiglione V, De Caterina R. Coronary Artery Anomalies. Circulation. 2021 Sep 21;144(12):983-996. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.055347. Epub 2021 Sep 20. PMID: 34543069.
2. Waterbury TM, Tarantini G, Vogel B, Mehran R, Gersh BJ, Gulati R. Non-atherosclerotic causes of acute coronary syndromes. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2020 Apr;17(4):229-241. doi: 10.1038/s41569-019-0273-3. Epub 2019 Oct 3. PMID: 31582839.

Cardiac #1

Clinical Data: Chest pain

Coronary CT angiography was performed.

Describe salient abnormalities.

Salient abnormalities:

9 mm aneurysm arising from left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Contrast blush within pulmonary trunk near abnormal, torturous LAD branch

What is the final diagnosis?

What is the final diagnosis?

Coronary artery-to-pulmonary artery fistula with left-to-right shunt. Left coronary artery aneurysm.


Coronary artery-to-pulmonary artery fistula (CPAF) is a type of coronary arteriovenous fistula (CAVF), where there is an abnormal connection (fistula) between a coronary artery and either pulmonary trunk or main pulmonary artery. This condition is associated with coronary artery aneurysms (CAA), pulmonary atresia, and ventricular septal defect (VSD). Patients are usually asymptomatic; the most common clinical manifestation is chest pain and dyspnea, especially on exertion.

References and further reading:

1. Hang K, Zhao G, Su W, Bao G, Zhao Q, Jiao Z, Tian Z, Zhang H, Nie L, Luo R, Li L, Huang M, Shi L, Li S. Coronary artery-to-pulmonary artery fistula in adults: evaluation with 320-row detector computed tomography coronary angiography. Ann Transl Med. 2021 Sep;9(18):1434. doi: 10.21037/atm-21-4404. PMID: 34733986; PMCID: PMC8506747.
2. Kim H, Beck KS, Choe YH, Jung JI. Coronary-to-Pulmonary Artery Fistula in Adults: Natural History and Management Strategies. Korean J Radiol. 2019 Nov;20(11):1491-1497. doi: 10.3348/kjr.2019.0331. PMID: 31606954; PMCID: PMC6791815.

Neuroradiology #37

Clinical Data

40-year-old female presents with acute severe headache at the emergency department.
The neurologist wants to rule out an intracranial haemorrhage and orders a CT brain.

Showing images CT without contrast

More images: MRI

What do you see?

What do you see?

CT shows
* low attenuating suprasellar lesion (fat density) with rim calcification.
* multiple scattered smaller similar subarachnoid lesions supra and infratentorial.
* enlarged supratentorial ventricles.

MRI shows
* the suprasellar lesion shows T1 heterogenous and T2-hyperintense signal,
* multiple scattered T1-hyperintense foci subarachnoid and intraventricular in the left frontal horn (arrows).
* no enhancement.
* no diffusion restriction (not shown).

What is the most likely diagnosis?

What is the most likely diagnosis?

Ruptured suprasellar dermoid cyst.

Ruptured intracranial dermoid cyst

Intracranial dermoid cysts are often incidental findings and most do not cause symptoms. Both dermoid and epidermoid cysts are ectodermal in origin and lined by stratified squamous epithelium. In addition, dermoid cysts contain epidermal appendages such as sebaceous glands which secrete sebum, an oily substance.

Symptoms occur due to mass effect or rupture. In case of rupture, dermoid material (sebum droplets) can leak into the subarachnoid space which can lead to chemical meningitis and cause symptoms such as headaches, seizures, and vasospasms.
CT shows
-hypoattenuating primary lesion (fat density due to sebum).
-typically, not exclusively, in midline location.
-sometimes rim calcification of the primary lesion.
-smaller similar hypoattenuating lesions in the subarachnoid space in case of rupture.

MRI shows
-generally T1-hyperintense signal (sebum).
-scattered T1-hyperintense droplets in the subarachnoid space and intraventricular. Fat-fluid level within the ventricles.
-variable T2 signal.
-generally no enhancement of the lesion. Leptomeningeal enhancement in case of chemical meningitis.


Head and Neck #15

What do you see in the following images?

Click here to see the answer

Scalp haemangioma
Right parietal subcutaneous well-defined soft tissue oval lesion. It demonstrates low signal on T1W image, Intermediate signal on T2W image with prominent vascular flow voids, and avid enhancement on the post contrast image. No adjacent osseous or soft tissue abnormality. No intracranial extension.

More information

Infantile hemangiomas are benign vascular tumours, most of these tumours arise in the craniofacial region. Most of them are not present at birth but they increase in size during the first year of life, with a subsequent progressive involution during early childhood.

Differential diagnosis includes: epidermoid cyst, lymphatic malformation,  and sinus pericranii.

Abdominal #22

45-year-old female patient:

* Generally unwell with abdominal pain and palpable cervical lymph nodes

Clinical information:

– Newly diagnosed HIV infection with a very low CD4 count of 30 cells/uL
– Generally unwell
– Presents at the emergency department with abdominal pain and palpable cervical lymph nodes

What do you see?


Most likely pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis in an immunocompromised patient with miliary pulmonary lesions, tuberculous colitis and ileitis, and necrotic extrapulmonary adenopathy (cervical and abdominal adenitis)
Microbiological analysis of an excised abdominal node confirmed the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis


Ileocaecal resection, tuberculostatic medication, and HAART

Teaching points:

– Be aware of TB in immunocompromised patients
– Cervical nodes are the #1 site of extrapulmonary TB adenopathy and the most common cause of adenopathy worldwide
– Intestinal tuberculosis can mimic inflammatory bowel disease

Neuroradiology #36

Clinical Information

A young adult male presents with progressive limb numbness and gait disturbances. Medical history was unremarkable.
MRI brain was performed and showed no intracranial abnormalities.
The neurologist ordered an MRI scan of the cervical spinal cord.

Showing MRI images:

What do you see?

A long segment T2-hyperintense lesion in the posterior part of the cervical myelum, specifically in the dorsal columns (‘inverted V-sign’). There is no perilesional oedema, mass effect, or enhancement.

What is the differential diagnosis based on the MRI findings?

Subacute Combined Degeneration due to Vitamin B12 deficiency or inactivation
Intrathecal MTX-induced myelopathy
Vitamin E deficiency
Copper deficiency
Tabes dorsalis (neurosyphilis)
HIV vacuolar myelopathy

More information
The laboratory values of Vitamine B12 were normal, as well as Copper and Vitamin E values.
HIV and Syphilis screening were negative.

The patient finally confirmed recreational (ab)use of nitrous oxide.

What is the most likely diagnosis?

Subacute Combined Degeneration due to nitrous oxide-induced Vitamin B12 inactivation.

Subacute Combined Degeneration

SCD is a neurological complication of vitamin B12 deficiency or inactivation. Several drugs can inactivate vitamin B12 such as metformin and nitrous oxide. Abuse of nitrous oxide inactivates vitamin B12 by oxidizing Cobalt-ion. In case of nitrous oxide abuse, vitamin B12 serum levels can appear normal.
Clinical symptoms include loss of vibration and proprioception in hands and feet and sensory gait ataxia. In severe cases, muscle weakness especially in the distal extremities can be seen.
MRI shows bilateral T2 high signal in the dorsal columns (inverted V sign) which explain the sensory deficits (paraesthesia, propriocepsis, and fine touch). In severe or untreated cases, the lateral columns may be involved leading to motor deficits such as limb weakness, spasticity, and paraplegia. The lesions typically involve a long segment in the cervical and higher thoracic spinal cord and show no enhancement or cord expansion.
It is crucial to promptly identify this disease and treat the vitamin B12 deficiency and/or discontinue the inactivating drug to prevent serious complications.

Abdominal #21

86-year-old patient:

– With sudden collapse

Clinical information:

– Patient known with infrarenal aortic aneurysm
– Sudden collapse at home
– Transfer to the hospital with ambulance

Axial and coronal slices of an abdominal CT in 2019 show a tortuous abdominal aorta with aneurysmal dilatations and eccentric thrombus. There is a thrombosed saccular component at the level of the aortic bifurcation (arrow)

CT at presentation:

What is the diagnosis?


Ruptured aortic aneurysm
* known infrarenal aortic aneurysm
* massive retroperitoneal hematoma extending into the posterior pararenal and perirenal compartments
* active contrast extravasation
Point of weakness: saccular aneurysmal component

Teaching points:

This case did not show a classic sign of pending rupture; however, a clear point of weakness was retrospectively identified (the saccular aneurysmal component at the aortic bifurcation)
Radiological signs of pending rupture:
* !! High attenuating crescent (= acute haematoma within the mural thrombus or aneurysmal wall)
* Focal discontinuity of intimal calcification and ‘tangential calcium sign’
* ‘Draped aorta sign’, present when
* The posterior aortic wall is unidentifiable as a distinct line
* The posterior aorta follows the contour of the spine on one or both sides
Reference: CT signs of pending aortic aneurysm rupture, J.P. Heiken,

Head and Neck #14

What do you see in the following images?

Click here to see the answer

Nasolabial cyst
Right nasolabial lesion with remodeling of the maxillary alveolus bone. On MRI it shows high signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images with no signal suppression on the T2 FLAIR with Fat saturation sequence.
Differential Diagnosis:
Nasolabial cyst with hemorrhage
Epidermal inclusion cyst
Dermoid cyst
Dentigerous cyst