Emergency #19 – Flash card

34-year-old female with acute onset pelvic pain for the past 3 days.

Pelvic ultrasound revealed the following findings:

What is the diagnosis?

Ovarian torsion

Differential diagnosis includes:

– Polycystic ovarian syndrome
– Massive ovarian edema
– Pelvic inflammatory syndrome

More information

The findings of unilateral enlarged ovary without (or little) arterial and venous flow are said to be diagnostic of torsion. The finding of little or no venous flow is more common than no arterial flow, so persistent flow does not exclude the diagnosis. Ancillary findings include free pelvic fluid, unusual midline location of the ovary or a twisted vascular pedicle (giving the whirlpool sign). Most cases of ovarian torsion are caused by an adnexal mass (including dermoid or other cysts), with some occurring due to ovarian hypermobility. Treatment is based on early recognition and surgery, which aims to prevent necrosis and infection. Its findings should be reported urgently to the surgeons for further care, and the radiologist has an important role in this scenario.

Dr. Pepe’s Diploma Casebook 154 – All you need to know to interpret a chest radiograph – Eighth Session – SOLVED

Dear Friends,

Showing today the leading case of webinar eight. Radiographs belong to 27-year-old with seminoma and pain in the anterior chest wall. What is your opinion about the  clavicular lesion?

1. Metastasis
2. Osteomyelitis
3. Benign bone lesion
4. Any of the above

Check out the last webinar form the series explaining in detail this case on our youtube channel and and catch up on previous ones on the EBR YouTube channel!

Click here to see the answer

Findings: the chest radiograph shows a lytic lesion in the proximal right clavicle (A-B, circles). It has a sclerotic border (A-B, red arrows), indicating a slow-growing process. This finding excludes options 1 and 2 and leaves option 3. Benign bone lesion as the correct diagnosis.

This lytic lesion correspond to a normal variant, called the rhomboid fossa. It represents the insertion site of the costoclavicular ligament( yellow), which extends from first rib (red) to the proximal clavicle (blue).
Is a normal variant and should not to be mistaken for an osteolytic lesion.

It occurs in 30% of males and 5% of females. It is more common in the young and becomes less visible with age.

Final diagnosis: rhomboid fossa of right clavicle

Congratulations to Faelivrin, who made the correct diagnosis

Teaching point: it is important to know the most common normal variants of the chest, to avoid confusing them with pathology.

Cáceres’ Corner Case 222 – SOLVED

Dear Friends,

Showing today preoperative radiographs of 57-year-old man with a torn knee cartilage. Sorry about the poor quality of the lateral view.
What do you see?

Come back on Friday to see the answer!

Click here to see the answer

Findings: PA radiograph show widening of the right superior mediastinum (A, arrow), imprinting the tracheal wall (A, red arrow).
In the lateral view there is increased opacity of Raider triangle (B, circle) with slight bowing of the posterior tracheal wall (B, red arrow).

The main causes of occupation of Raider triangle are two: either esophageal disease or congenital malformation of the aortic arch. The last one is the most likely, given the findings in the PA view.
 
Enhanced CT confirms a right aortic arch (C-D, arrows), crossing behind the trachea (C-E, red arrows) and causing the opacity in Raider triangle.

Findings are better seen in the 3-D reconstruction (F).

Final diagnosis: right aortic arch
 
Congratulations to Jolanta who made the correct diagnosis (my initial impression in the plain film was double aortic arch, so I will award another prize to Faelivrin for being wrong with me).
 
Teaching point: this case does not look very exciting, but right aortic arch is very common, and it is important to avoid confusing it with a mediastinal mass.
 
If you want to know more about malformations of the aortic arch, look up the article by Hanneman, Newman and Chan: Congenital variants and anomalies of the aortic arch, RadioGraphics 2017; 37:32–51

Abdominal #8 – Long case

76-year-old male.
* Presents with acute abdominal pain, enlarged abdomen and no defaecation since a few days.

What do you see?

Abdominal CT scan shows dilated colon loops with a calibre change in the sigmoid. Whirl of mesenterial vessels.

Differential diagnosis is Sigmoid volvulus. This was confirmed on OR.

Sigmoid volvulus is differentiated from a cecal volvulus by its ahaustral wall and the lower end pointing to the pelvis.

Abdominal radiographs will show a large, dilated loop of the colon, often with a few gas-fluid levels. Specific signs include coffee bean sign and absent rectal gas.

CT scan will show large gas-filled loop lacking haustra, forming a closed-loop obstruction. Specific signs include:
– whirl sign: twisting of the mesentery and mesenteric vessels
– bird’s beak sign: if rectal contrast has been administered
– X-marks-the-spot sign: crossing loops of bowel at the site of the transition
– split wall sign: mesenteric fat seen indenting or invaginating the wall of the bowel

Rectal tube insertion for treatment is successful in treating 90% of cases. Occasionally patients suffer from recurrent sigmoid volvulus, for which a surgeon may consider sigmoid colopexy (surgical fixation of the sigmoid colon), or in the surgically unfit, a percutaneous endoscopic colostomy (PEC) might be performed. The mortality rate of sigmoid volvulus is 20-25%. The most serious complication is bowel ischemia, not blow-out perforation as you might expect.

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Cáceres’ Corner Case 221 – SOLVED

Dear Friends,

Today´s images belong to a 76-year-old man with pain in the back. Antecedents of urothelial carcinoma.

PA chest radiograph was normal and radiographs of the dorsal spine were taken.

What do you see?

Come back on Friday to see the solution!

Click here to see the answer

Findings: AP view of dorsal spine shows fixation screws in the lower spine and partial vertebroplasty of D12. The most important finding is that the left pedicle of D8 is absent (A, circle). In the lateral view, the posterior wall of the same vertebra is not seen (B, circle).

The findings are more evident in the cone down views (C-D, circles). In this particular case I was lucky because the superimposed air of the left main bronchus allows an unimpeded view of the missing pedicle.

Review of a recent chest CT demonstrated a lytic lesion in the body and pedicle of D8 (E-G, circles) that were no reported.

Final diagnosis: metastasis to D8 discovered in the plain film of the spine and overlooked in a previous CT.
 
Congratulations to BujarB, who was the only one to discover the missing pedicle (my hero!)
 
You may think that this case is difficult (only one of seven found the lesion). In the old times our routine included looking at the pedicles in the AP view of dorsal and lumbar spine. To familiarize you with the appearance of the normal spine, an AP view is shown below.

Teaching point: remember to look at the pedicles in the AP view. A missing pedicle in a patient with a known primary tumor is highly suspicious of metastasis.