Cáceres’ Corner Case 253 – SOLVED

Dear Friends,

Today’s case is a PA chest radiograph for knee surgery in a 28-year-old man.

What do you see?

Click here to see the answer

Findings: PA chest radiograph shows an osteochondroma in the right humerus (A, yellow arrow). There are two more in the anterior arch of the left fifth rib and in the proximal end of the right clavicle (A, red arrows).
They are better seen in the cone down views (B-D, arrows).

The first and only diagnosis that comes to mind is multiple osteochondromatosis, confirmed with views of the lower extremities (E-G).

Final diagnosis: Multiple osteochondromatosis.
Most of you did very well in this case. Congratulations to Mauro, who was the first and to Kaushalya and Ali who made back-to-back diagnosis in a five-minute interval.
Teaching point: remember to look at the bones of the chest, especially when taking an examination. It may surprise the examiner and win you a few extra points.

Head and Neck #4 – Flashcard

CT – Coronal + C
CT – Axial + C
Where is the abnormality?​

Left side of the neck.

How can the abnormality be described?​

Multiple enlarged neck clustered lymph nodes, with some of them showing necrosis.

What is the differential diagnosis?

Infectious lymphadenitis: such as TB or pyogenic lymphadenitis.
Metastasis: particularly from head and neck malignancies.
Treated lymphoma or lymphoma in immune compromised patient.

What is the final diagnosis

TB lymphadenitis

Cáceres’ Corner Case 246 – SOLVED

Dear Friends,

Today I am showing the PA radiograph of an 82-year-old woman. Preoperatory for cataracts.

What do you think about the right hilum?

1. Calcified TB nodes
2. Sarcoidosis
3. Amyloid
4. None of the above

More images will be shown on Wednesday.

Click here to see the images shown on Monday

Dear friends, showing today PA and lateral radiographs taken two years earlier. Hope they help.

Click here to see the new images

Click here to see the answer

Findings: Initial PA radiograph shows opacities in the right hilum (A, circle), unchanged in comparison with a previous film taken two years earlier (B, circle).

The clue to the diagnosis lies in the density and appearance of the opacities. They are denser than the typical lymph node calcifications, suggesting that they are metallic. In addition, some of them look tubular or branching (C, red arrows). A lateral view taken two years earlier confirms dense lineal and branching opacities in right lung (D, arrows).
The combination of linear and branching metallic opacities suggests that they are either in the bronchi (previous bronchography) or within the pulmonary vessels (embolism after vertebroplasty o treatment of AV malformation). See Diploma # 44.

Lateral view of the lumbar spine shows surgical changes with vertebroplasty of L3 to L5 and leakage of the cement into the epidural veins (E, arrows), better seen in the sagittal CT (F, arrows).

Unenhanced CT confirms multiple cement emboli in the pulmonary arteries (G-J, circles)

Final diagnosis: cement embolization of the lung after vertebroplasty
I must mention Olena and Ayudi who suggested amyloid and broncholithiasis but failed to notice the metallic opacity of the findings.
Teaching point: Consider previous vertebroplasty when you see metallic opacities in the lungs. It is a common complication.

Musculoskeletal #15 – Flashcard

This is the third and last case of the musculoskeletal series. Check the first one and second one on this blog.

What do you see on the following images?

Click here to see the answer

Osteoblastoma: Osteoblastoma is histologically similar to osteoid osteoma but they are larger (usually accepted more than 1 cm), often involving the posterior column

Neuroradiology #24 – Flashcard

89-year-old female patient with aplastic anemia. Showing CT images without contrast media. What do you see?

Click here to see the answer

CT images without contrast media: Subacute isodense right subdural hematoma, revealed with narrowing of right cerebral hemispheric sulci and right lateral ventricle and minimal midline shift (red arrows), acute left subdural hematoma (blue arrow)

Dr. Pepe’s Diploma Casebook 158 – SOLVED

Dear Friends,

this is the last case of the first semester. Will meet again in September.
Wish all of you a very happy summer vacation!

This is a new “art of interpretation” case. Radiographs belong to a 40-year-old woman with mild cough.

What do you see?


1. Chronic TB changes
2. AV malformation
3. Bronchial atresia
4. Any of the above

Click here to see the answer

To refresh your memory, remember that interpreting a chest radiograph involves three basic steps:

1. Gather information. Examine the radiographs carefully and collect all the pertinent information. Remember that overlooking visible findings is the main cause of errors.

2. Analyze the findings. Once collected, the findings should be properly evaluated, and an opinion should be offered.

3. Decide on the next step to reach the diagnosis.

Step 1. Information:

In this patient the lateral view is unremarkable.
All relevant findings are seen in the PA radiograph:

1. Tubular branching opacities in the left upper lung (A, red arrows)
2. Increased lucency of left upper lung (A, circle)
3. Negative finding: the left hilum is in its normal position.

Step 2. Analysis of the findings:

1. Branching tubular opacities have a limited differential diagnosis: either they are pulmonary vessels or mucous-filled dilated bronchi.

2. Hyperlucent lung is a reliable sign of lung disease when complemented with an expiration film to demonstrate air-trapping.

3. The normal position of the left hilum is a negative finding that excludes a fibrotic process in the LUL (I.e. chronic TB), which should cause upper retraction of the hilum.

The combination of a lucent lung lesion with branching tubular opacities points towards an obstructive process of a segmental bronchus with mucous impaction (Obstruction of a lobar bronchus would cause lobar collapse instead of increased lucency).


Step 3. Decide on the next step

Once segmental bronchial obstruction is suspected in the chest radiograph, the best procedure to confirm it is an enhanced chest CT with expiratory views. In this case it shows attenuated upper lobe vessels (B, arrows) and obvious mucous impactions (B-C, red arrows).
Axial CT with lung window confirms the increased lucency of the apical-posterior segment of the RUL (D, circle)

Inspiration/expiration axial CT views (E-F) confirm segmental air trapping on the left.

Bronchoscopy did not show any inflammatory or tumoral changes in the LUL bronchus. The orifice of the apical-posterior segment was missing.

Final diagnosis: bronchial atresia of apical-posterior segment of LUL

In my experience, bronchial atresia is the most common congenital lung malformation seen in adults. Congenital bronchial atresia results from proximal interruption of a segmental bronchus, which causes overinflation of the affected segment and secondary mucus impaction. Chest radiography shows a focal hyperlucent area with internal mucus impaction. CT depicts these findings to better advantage. Inspiration and expiration views help to confirm air-trapping. In case of doubt, bronchoscopy excludes other causes of bronchial obstruction.

Congenital bronchial atresia may present different appearances, as shown in the following case of one of our X-ray technicians.

30-year-old female, asymptomatic. PA chest radiograph (A) shows hyperlucent left lung with discrete dextroposition of the heart. Expiration film (B) shows air-trapping on the left with deviation of the mediastinum towards the right. Note a thick tubular shadow in the left lower lung (A-B, red arrows), compatible with bronchial impaction. The findings are suggestive of congenital bronchial atresia

Axial and coronal enhanced CT show increased lucency of the posterior segments of LLL with a central mucous impaction (C-D, red arrows)

Decreased vascularity of LLL and central mucous impaction (E-F, red arrows) are better demonstrated in the MIP reconstruction.

Coronal view eleven years later show that air is now present within the dilated bronchus, confirming the diagnosis (G-H, circles) .

Dr. Pepe’s teaching point:

Hyperlucent lung with mucous impaction are the hallmark of congenital bronchial atresia.

Cáceres’ Corner Case 241 – SOLVED

Dear Friends,

Today’s radiographs belong to a 24-year-old woman with cough and fever. What do you see?

More images will be shown next Wednesday and the answer will be published on Friday.

Click here to see Monday images

Dear Friends,

Showing today CT images of the chest. What do you think?

Click here to see the new images

Click here to see the answer

Findings: Chest radiographs show air-space disease in the right lower lobe (A-B, arrows). There is marked widening of the right paratracheal line (A, red arrow) suggestive of mediastinal lymphadenopathy.

Axial CT with lung window shows RLL air-space disease without cavitation (C, arrow). Mediastinal window at different levels confirms enlarged paratracheal, subcarinal and neck lymph nodes with hypodense center (D-F, red arrows). These findings should suggest active tuberculosis as the first possibility.
Although TB usually affects upper lobes, isolated involvement of lower lobes occurs in about 7% of cases.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis was found in the sputum.

Final diagnosis: active TB.
Congratulations to Archanareddyt who was the first to make the diagnosis.
 Teaching point: lymph nodes with hypodense center may occur in several processes (treated tumors, Whipple’s, etc.), but in the appropriate clinical situation, the first diagnostic consideration should be tuberculosis.

Neuroradiology #22 – Flashcard

What do you see on these images?

Click here to see the answer


CT scan shows a large calcified lesion. MRI shows a large cortical-based high T2 lesion with cystic component and dark T2 foci corresponding to the calcifications. Post-contrast images show patchy enhancing areas.  

Differential Diagnosis

DNET (usually may calcify) ganglioglioma (cystic areas, enhancing solid component, may calcify).

Dr. Pepe’s Diploma Casebook 157 – SOLVED

Dear Friends,

The leading case of this week’s Diploma has been provided by my good friend Jordi Andreu. Radiographs belong to an asymptomatic 48-year-old woman.


1. Neurogenic tumor
2. Pulmonary hamartoma
3. Pleural fibrous tumor
4. None of the above

What do you think? Come back on Friday to see the answer!

Click here to see the answer

Findings: PA chest radiograph shows a rounded opacity in the left apex (A, arrow). All diagnosis are possible, as the pulmonary apex is a narrow space and it is very difficult to determine the origin of a mass. The clue lies in the nodular opacities in the neck (A, circle) which raise the possibility of superimposed hair braid.
Unenhanced coronal CT (B) does not show any mass, confirming that the finding is artifactual.

Final diagnosis: superimposed hair braid simulating pulmonary disease

The purpose of this presentation is to discuss elements in or about the soft tissues of the chest wall that may simulate lung disease. Those related to the thoracic skeleton were shown in Diploma case # 57.
This Diploma complements the non-significant findings described in webinar eight.

I have classified them into three groups, the first one related to the soft tissues of the chest wall while the other two are external to the body:

1. Nipples and skin lesions
2. Hair and/or hair implements
3. Garments

Nipple Shadows

Nipple shadows are seen in 3% to 10% of PA chest radiographs. In about 10% of these patients, the identification may raise doubts. Comparison with previous films will confirm the stability of the nodules (Fig. 1). In case of doubt, nipple markers should be placed. Routine use of nipple markers has been proposed in oncologic patients.

Fig. 1. 58-year-old man with typical bilateral nipple shadows (A, arrows), unchanged in comparison with a previous film (B, arrows). Nipples are well seen on axial CT in the same patient (C, arrows). Nowadays, patients may come with their own nipple markers! (D).

Unilateral enlarged nipple shadows are suspicious findings. Visual inspection should be done to confirm that the nipple is indeed enlarged (Fig. 2). Occasionally, a true lung nodule may simulate a nipple shadow, even with nipple markers. In such cases, CT will correct our error (Figs. 3-4)

Fig 2. 61-year-old woman with left pleuritic chest pain. PA chest film shows a small amount of left pleural fluid (A, white arrow) and a nodule at the right costophrenic angle (A, red arrow). Visual inspection showed a large right nipple as the cause of the false nodule. Two weeks later, the pleural effusion has disappeared, and the nipple shadow is no longer seen (B).

Fig. 3. 54-year-old man with a renal tumor. PA film shows a nodule in the LLL (A, arrow) that simulates a nipple, even with a nipple marker (B, arrow). Axial CT shows a metastatic nodule in the LLL and a larger one in the RLL, not seen in the PA chest radiograph (insert, arrows).

Skin lesions

Skin lesions may also cause false lung nodules. Visual inspection of the chest will demonstrate them and confirm the diagnosis (Fig. 5). If there is any doubt, a marker can be used.

Fig. 5. Chest wart simulating a lung nodule in the PA film (A, arrow). Lateral film shows the wart in the skin of the anterior chest wall (B, arrow). The wart is higher in this view because the upheld arms elevate it.

Occasionally, a discrepancy in density between both breasts, usually related to previous surgery, may simulate pulmonary pathology (Fig 6).

Fig 6. 65-year-old woman with syncope. PA radiograph shows a rounded opacity in the right lung (A, arrow), suspected to be a pulmonary infiltrate. Axial CT (B) show normal lungs. The opacity is due to a superimposed right breast prosthesis (B-C, arrows).


In my experience, hair is a common cause of opacities in the lung apices (Fig 7).
Strands of loose hair may project over the upper lung, simulating linear fibrotic infiltrates (Fig 8). Rubber bands at the end of braids may be confused with pulmonary nodules (Fig. 9). A long braid may fool us and consider it intrapulmonary disease (Fig 10).

In most cases, the clue to the diagnosis lies in recognizing that the abnormality extends to the neck.

Fig. 7. Braid simulating an apical pulmonary nodule (A-B, arrows). The rubber band (A-B, red arrows) suggests the correct diagnosis

Fig. 8. Loose hair simulating a linear infiltrate or fibrosis in the right apex (A, white arrow). Note the same appearance in the lower neck (A, red arrow). The apex looks normal after the hair is lifted (B). The opaque rounded opacity that looks like a hair clasp (A-B yellow arrow) is a cervical disk prosthesis.

Fig 9. Two patients with rubber bands at the end of a braid simulating pulmonary nodules (A-B, arrows). In both, the braids are visible in the neck (A-B, red arrows). Despite that, patient B was referred for a CT examination to evaluate a left lung nodule.

Fig. 10. 25-year-old man with braided hair simulating a RUL infiltrate (A, arrow). The opacity extends to the neck, giving away the diagnosis (A, red arrow). After raising the braid, the chest looks normal (B). Remember that men also wear their hair long nowadays.

Clothing artifacts

Clothing artifacts occur when the technician does not ask patients to remove garments that have logos or images on them. This usually happens with women, out of respect for modesty (Figs. 11 and 12).

Fig. 11. 27-year-old woman with multiple miliary nodules in both lungs (A, circles). The opacities result from a jeweled panther on the shirt she was wearing (B).

Fig 12. 45-year-old woman with previous breast carcinoma. PA radiograph shows small nodules in lower lungs (A, circles). Lateral view proves that the nodules are in a blouse (B, arrow)

Other types of body artifacts may cause dubious opacities in the chest radiograph (Figs 13 and 14)

Fig 13. 29-year-old man with a barely visible non-displaced fracture of the left clavicle (A, arrow), well demonstrated in the 3-D CT reconstruction (B). Components of the support brace for the fracture simulate enlarged upper lobe vessels (A, red arrows).

To end the presentation, in the last two months we have been acquainted with a new artifact: the wire in the face masks (Fig 14)

Fig 14. Routine chest radiograph during the Covid-19 scare. Notice the wire in the face mask (A-B, arrows)

Follow Dr. Pepe’s advice:

1. Unilateral nipple shadows may generate diagnostic problems.
2. If a hair artifact is suspected, look at the soft tissues of the neck.
3. Garments may create weird lung shadows.