Neuroradiology #17 – Long case

Regarding the following images:

Where is the abnormality?

Bilateral asymmetrical temporal and inferomedial frontal lobes and insular cortices

What is it like?

Abnormal CT hypodensity and high FLAIR signal intensity of the affected white matter and cortex

What is the differential diagnosis?

Herpes encephalitis: affects the limbic system bilaterally, temporal lobes, insular cortices and inferolateral frontal lobes. May progress to hemorrhage. Basal ganglia is typically spared

Paraneoplastic tumor-related limbic encephalitis and autoimmune limbic encephalitis: tumour-related limbic encephalitis and autoimmune limbic encephalitis: autoimmune encephalitis. Same distribution as herpes encephalitis but the basal ganglia is frequently involved. Hemorrhage is uncommon

What is the final diagnosis?

Herpes encephalitis

Abdominal #6 – Long case

56-year-old male:

* Presents with diffuse chronic pain in the abdomen
* Decreased kidney function

A CT is performed:

CT abdomen with IV contrast

What do you see?

Diffuse hypodense solid tissue around the pancreas, compression splenic vein with inhomogeneous attenuation of the splenic parenchyma. Soft tissue manchet around the infrarenal abdominal aorta, compressing the aorta to the spine and continuing around the iliac vessels. No separate lymph nodes can be seen. Right hydronephrosis and hydro-ureter, right kidney shows edematous swelling . Both kidneys show heterogeneous cortical enhancement.

What is the most likely diagnosis?

Right hydronephrosis and hydro-urter, pancreatitis and nephritis.

Differential diagnosis includes:
Retroperitoneal fibrosis (Ormond disease) or auto-immune mediated IgG-4 disease

CT-guided retroperitoneal biopsy was performed.

Pathology report: Fibrous tissue with chronic inflammation. Not enough signs of IgG-4 mediated disease.


Musculoskeletal #6 – Flashcard

28 year-old male with a history of shoulder dislocation.

Regarding this image:

What do you see?

Hill-Sachs lesion
* Edema on posterolateral humeral head secondary to compression fracture, well-demonstrated on axial fat suppressed proton density Weighted image
* Secondary to anterior dislocation of shoulder

Regarding this image:

What do you see?

Bankart lesion
* Tear/injury of anteroinferior labrum, well-demonstrated on axial fat suppressed proton density Weighted image
* Secondary to anterior dislocation of shoulder
* May have associated bony component

Emergency #16 – Long case

21-year-old male:

* Collapse twice
* Loss of strength of right arm
* Trouble finding words
* Headache

What findings do you see on the CT?

CT Findings

* No abnormalities were seen
* No bleeding
* No signs of recent ischemia

Patient develops fever. Cannot bend his neck properly. When asked, he has been traveling recently to Thailand.

What further imaging could help us?

An MRI is performed.

What findings do you see on the MRI?

MRI Findings

* Two areas left frontal and left parietal with T2/FLAIR hyperintense swelling/edema of cortex and subcortical white matter, with diffusion restriction and patchy, gyriform cortical enhancement

* Diffusely leptomeningeal enhancement

* No ring-enhancing lesions. No white matter vasogenic or cytotoxic edema

What is the most likely diagnosis?

Cerebritis (precursor of abscess) and meningitis. Not yet an abscess

Note: Encephalitis means inflammation of PARENCHYMA

Differential diagnosis of meningitis:
> Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis
> Sarcoidosis and other granulomatous diseases
> Vasculitis
> Connective tissue diseases

Viral inflammatory cause for symptoms was confirmed with lumbar puncture and patient was treated with IV anti-viral treatment

Abdominal #5 – Long case

88-years-old female:
* Presents with acute abdominal pain and pain the right groin
* On clinical examination mass in the right groin
* Slightly elevated inflammatory parameters. Continue on next slide for coronal views.

What do you see?

Right-sided obstructed inguinal herniation with small bowel trapped. Mechanic small bowel ileus. As a coincidence Meckel’s diverticulum (not herniated). Engorgement mesentery but still normal enhancing bowel walls, no direct signs of bowel ischemia yet.


Emergency #15 – Flashcard

62-year-old female.

* Sudden collapse
* Headache
* Paresis of mouth left-sided
* Pupil difference L>R

What is the most likely diagnosis? What should be the next diagnostic step?

Diagnosis: PCOM aneurysm subarachnoid bleed (with subdural hematoma, intraventricular bleed, midline shift, hydrocephalus)
Next step:CTA (you already see aneurysm on NECT)