What do you see on the following images?
Patient with right-sided iliac pain:
– 53-year-old male
– Left adrenal nodule was incidentally found on a CT scan
– MRI was performed for better characterization
– Left adrenal nodule with loss of signal intensity on out-of-phase image
– The most important characteristic feature is the presence of intracellular lipid.
– Chemical shift imaging is the most reliable technique for diagnosing adrenal adenoma: most of them demonstrate a loss of signal intensity on out-of-phase MR images.
– Presenting with hematuria
Enhancing mass in the left renal pelvis, most likely TCC
Left total nephroureterectomy and bladder cuff excision
Microscopy result: Transitional Cell Carcinoma of 2,5 cm in the renal pelvis, low grade.
TNM classification Pyelum-Ureter (8th edition UICC): pTa.
– The vast majority of renal pelvis and ureter tumours are transitional cell carcinoma (> 90%), the remainder of tumours are squamous cell carcinoma (< 10%) and adenocarcinoma (< 1%) Transitional cell carcinoma much more commonly occurs in the bladder than in the renal pelvis or ureter - Synchronous and metachronous tumours are frequent because TCC is caused by toxic exposure through for example cigarette smoking - TCC of the renal pelvis can spread to the kidney and intraluminal seeding to more caudal parts of the ureter and to the bladder is common => always look for other space occupying lesions
– For these reasons, an excretory phase is always useful when a kidney mass is suspected, as TCC’s represent 10 to 15% of renal tumours
– CT scan protocol: non enhanced CT, enhanced CT (70-90 sec), delayed phase (10-15 mins)
31-year-old male with:
* Right upper quadrant & epigastric pain
* History of gastric bypass surgery
The transition point from dilated small bowel (with the “small bowel feces sign”) to non-dilated small bowel at the site of internal herniation through a mesenteric defect.
* Presents with acute abdominal pain, enlarged abdomen and no defaecation since a few days.
Abdominal CT scan shows dilated colon loops with a calibre change in the sigmoid. Whirl of mesenterial vessels.
Differential diagnosis is Sigmoid volvulus. This was confirmed on OR.
Sigmoid volvulus is differentiated from a cecal volvulus by its ahaustral wall and the lower end pointing to the pelvis.
Abdominal radiographs will show a large, dilated loop of the colon, often with a few gas-fluid levels. Specific signs include coffee bean sign and absent rectal gas.
CT scan will show large gas-filled loop lacking haustra, forming a closed-loop obstruction. Specific signs include:
– whirl sign: twisting of the mesentery and mesenteric vessels
– bird’s beak sign: if rectal contrast has been administered
– X-marks-the-spot sign: crossing loops of bowel at the site of the transition
– split wall sign: mesenteric fat seen indenting or invaginating the wall of the bowel
Rectal tube insertion for treatment is successful in treating 90% of cases. Occasionally patients suffer from recurrent sigmoid volvulus, for which a surgeon may consider sigmoid colopexy (surgical fixation of the sigmoid colon), or in the surgically unfit, a percutaneous endoscopic colostomy (PEC) might be performed. The mortality rate of sigmoid volvulus is 20-25%. The most serious complication is bowel ischemia, not blow-out perforation as you might expect.
* Presents with acute abdominal pain
* Previous history adnex extirpation and appendectomy
* No raised inflammatory parameters
* No peristalsis
* CT abdomen with IV contrast
What do you see?
Dilated small bowel loops, radiating distribution (“Bunch of grapes”) with impressive mesenterial venous engorgement and edema in the centre. Ascites perihepatic and in Douglas. Loss of bowel enhancement.
* Presents with diffuse chronic pain in the abdomen
* Decreased kidney function
A CT is performed:
Diffuse hypodense solid tissue around the pancreas, compression splenic vein with inhomogeneous attenuation of the splenic parenchyma. Soft tissue manchet around the infrarenal abdominal aorta, compressing the aorta to the spine and continuing around the iliac vessels. No separate lymph nodes can be seen. Right hydronephrosis and hydro-ureter, right kidney shows edematous swelling . Both kidneys show heterogeneous cortical enhancement.
Right hydronephrosis and hydro-urter, pancreatitis and nephritis.
Differential diagnosis includes:
Retroperitoneal fibrosis (Ormond disease) or auto-immune mediated IgG-4 disease
CT-guided retroperitoneal biopsy was performed.
Pathology report: Fibrous tissue with chronic inflammation. Not enough signs of IgG-4 mediated disease.
* Presents with acute abdominal pain and pain the right groin
* On clinical examination mass in the right groin
* Slightly elevated inflammatory parameters. Continue on next slide for coronal views.
* No previous history
* Presents with acute kidney insufficiency
* DD glomerulonephritis
* Nephrotic syndrome
* US to exclide post-renal obstruction
US: Bilateral hydronephrosis and hydro-ureter. No obstructing mass or stone visible. Bilateral loss of parenchyma, indicating chronic problem.Mobile bladder stone.
Patient receives bilateral nephrostomy. On antegrade pyelography no calibre changes or strictures, not proximal or distal. No cause for hydrnephrosis and hydro-ureter bilateral.
Non-enhanced abdominal CT to evaluate nephrolithiasis. Traction on sigmoid, coecum and small bowel, andalso traction on bladder roof. Consider endometriosis in the differential diagnosis and perform MRI pelvis.
MRI pelvis. Medialised adnexes. T2 hypo-intense fibrotic plaque centered on uterus very suggestive for deep invasive endometriosis (DIE). Fibrotic changes between uterus and rectum, uterus and bladder and uterus and bowels. No endometrioma cysts. Central in fibrotic area small aircollection with fistula towards anterior fornix (not completely shown here), with small abscess on major labia.