Cáceres’ Corner Case 245 – SOLVED

Dear friends, Dr Pepe has eloped with Miss Piggy (again) and has let me alone, holding the fort. Hope he will be back in time to give the next webinar.

Today’s radiographs belong to a 60-year-old male with cough and moderate dyspnea.

Diagnosis:

1. Hilar lymphadenopathy
2. Right pulmonary artery aneurysm
3. Mediastinal tumor
4. None of the above

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Findings: PA and lateral chest radiographs show a right hilar mass (A-B, arrows). In my opinion, the appearance of the mass and its location in the right hilum in the lateral view rules out a mediastinal mass.
There is a small nodule in the RUL (A, red arrow) that can be overlooked unless we look for it

The nodule is better seen in the cone down view and the axial CT (C-D, red arrows), with high SUV in the PET-CT (E, arrow), accompanied by a metastatic node in the mediastinum (E, circle).

Caudal slices of enhanced CT show multiple lymph nodes in right hilum (F, arrow) and mediastinum (G, circle).

Biopsy of a lymph node returned as metastatic carcinoma.

Final diagnosis: carcinoma of the lung with mediastinal metastases

Congratulations to archanareddyt who was the only one to discover the RUL nodule

Teaching point: this is an interesting case for educational purposes.
1. Knowing the most common causes of unilateral hilar enlargement (lymph nodes vs. enlarged artery) helps the differential diagnosis.
2. We should think of common processes rather than unusual ones (lymph nodes vs. aneurysm).
3.  Suspecting unilateral hilar lymph nodes leads to search for the two more common etiologies (TB or carcinoma) leading to the discovery of the RUL nodule.

Hope the case was useful!