A 55-year-old male. Pain left flank and macroscopic hematuria.
What is your diagnosis?
Diagnosis: Left hydronephrosis and hydroureter with proximal obstructing ureter stone. Fat stranding surrounding left kidney, “blow out” of urine
31-year-old male with:
* Right upper quadrant & epigastric pain
* History of gastric bypass surgery
The transition point from dilated small bowel (with the “small bowel feces sign”) to non-dilated small bowel at the site of internal herniation through a mesenteric defect.
* Presents with acute abdominal pain, enlarged abdomen and no defaecation since a few days.
Abdominal CT scan shows dilated colon loops with a calibre change in the sigmoid. Whirl of mesenterial vessels.
Differential diagnosis is Sigmoid volvulus. This was confirmed on OR.
Sigmoid volvulus is differentiated from a cecal volvulus by its ahaustral wall and the lower end pointing to the pelvis.
Abdominal radiographs will show a large, dilated loop of the colon, often with a few gas-fluid levels. Specific signs include coffee bean sign and absent rectal gas.
CT scan will show large gas-filled loop lacking haustra, forming a closed-loop obstruction. Specific signs include:
– whirl sign: twisting of the mesentery and mesenteric vessels
– bird’s beak sign: if rectal contrast has been administered
– X-marks-the-spot sign: crossing loops of bowel at the site of the transition
– split wall sign: mesenteric fat seen indenting or invaginating the wall of the bowel
Rectal tube insertion for treatment is successful in treating 90% of cases. Occasionally patients suffer from recurrent sigmoid volvulus, for which a surgeon may consider sigmoid colopexy (surgical fixation of the sigmoid colon), or in the surgically unfit, a percutaneous endoscopic colostomy (PEC) might be performed. The mortality rate of sigmoid volvulus is 20-25%. The most serious complication is bowel ischemia, not blow-out perforation as you might expect.
* Presents with acute abdominal pain
* Previous history adnex extirpation and appendectomy
* No raised inflammatory parameters
* No peristalsis
* CT abdomen with IV contrast
What do you see?
Dilated small bowel loops, radiating distribution (“Bunch of grapes”) with impressive mesenterial venous engorgement and edema in the centre. Ascites perihepatic and in Douglas. Loss of bowel enhancement.
* Presents with diffuse chronic pain in the abdomen
* Decreased kidney function
A CT is performed:
Diffuse hypodense solid tissue around the pancreas, compression splenic vein with inhomogeneous attenuation of the splenic parenchyma. Soft tissue manchet around the infrarenal abdominal aorta, compressing the aorta to the spine and continuing around the iliac vessels. No separate lymph nodes can be seen. Right hydronephrosis and hydro-ureter, right kidney shows edematous swelling . Both kidneys show heterogeneous cortical enhancement.
Right hydronephrosis and hydro-urter, pancreatitis and nephritis.
Differential diagnosis includes:
Retroperitoneal fibrosis (Ormond disease) or auto-immune mediated IgG-4 disease
CT-guided retroperitoneal biopsy was performed.
Pathology report: Fibrous tissue with chronic inflammation. Not enough signs of IgG-4 mediated disease.
* Presents with acute abdominal pain and pain the right groin
* On clinical examination mass in the right groin
* Slightly elevated inflammatory parameters. Continue on next slide for coronal views.
* No previous history
* Presents with acute kidney insufficiency
* DD glomerulonephritis
* Nephrotic syndrome
* US to exclide post-renal obstruction
US: Bilateral hydronephrosis and hydro-ureter. No obstructing mass or stone visible. Bilateral loss of parenchyma, indicating chronic problem.Mobile bladder stone.
Patient receives bilateral nephrostomy. On antegrade pyelography no calibre changes or strictures, not proximal or distal. No cause for hydrnephrosis and hydro-ureter bilateral.
Non-enhanced abdominal CT to evaluate nephrolithiasis. Traction on sigmoid, coecum and small bowel, andalso traction on bladder roof. Consider endometriosis in the differential diagnosis and perform MRI pelvis.
MRI pelvis. Medialised adnexes. T2 hypo-intense fibrotic plaque centered on uterus very suggestive for deep invasive endometriosis (DIE). Fibrotic changes between uterus and rectum, uterus and bladder and uterus and bowels. No endometrioma cysts. Central in fibrotic area small aircollection with fistula towards anterior fornix (not completely shown here), with small abscess on major labia.
* Rigid abdomen and generalised tenderness
* Pain lower abdomen
* CRP 250
Diagnosis Perforated sigmoid diverticulitis (Hinchey 3 or 4, peritonitis)
> Mesenterial fatty infiltration, free air bubbled outside bowel lumen.
> Also subdiaphragmal free air and free fluid.
> Notice enlarged reactive lymph nodes and peritoneal thickening and enhancement, indicative of peritonitis.
> Patient was operated, free faeces was found in the abdomen.
Hinchey classification of acute diverticulitis:
* Stage 1a: phlegmon
* Stage 1b: diverticulitis with pericolic or mesenteric abscess
* Stage 2: diverticulitis with walled off pelvic abscess
* Stage 3: diverticulitis with generalised purulent peritonitis
* Stage 4: diverticulitis with generalised faecal peritonitis
A 70-year-old male presents to the Emergency Room with abdominal pain and distention. The patient has a history stage IV non-small cell lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, severe dementia and recent deep venous thrombosis. He presents secondary to 2 days of poor appetite, diffuse abdominal pain, abdominal distention, and increasing dyspnea. He reports no bowel movements in last 2 days.
The decision was made to proceed with a CT of the abdomen and pelvis with intravenous and oral contrast. The following study was obtained.
Diagnosis: High-grade small bowel obstruction due to internal hernia with small bowel pneumatosis and small volume pneumoperitoneum.
In cases with bowel obstruction, the radiologist should aim to identify the cause of the obstruction as early surgical reversal may be curative for the patient. One of the uncommon causes of small bowel obstruction includes internal hernias. This is a difficult diagnosis to make, and a few signs are may be useful to help identify it. Firstly, it is important to look at the overall distribution of the bowel loops. In this case, the distended bowel loops are abnormal in position, as they are within the pelvis as well as positioned anterior to the large bowel.
In this case, the duodenojejunal junction and ligament of Treitz are seen to the right of midline and are positioned inferiorly and posteriorly deep pelvis along the peritoneal reflection. In this case, the low position of the bowel loops may be due to a defect in the sigmoid mesocolon which would make the rare diagnosis of a sigmoid mesocolon hernia.
Most importantly are the ancillary features which make this case a surgical emergency. Firstly, pneumatosis intestinalis is seen within the small bowel wall:
Using the lung window, we are also able to notice subtle pneumoperitoneum:
In cases with suspected bowel ischemia, it is important to additionally look for gas within the portal venous system, which in this case was not present.
Due to multiple comorbidities, and upon further consultation with family and the patient, the decision was made not to operate and undergo conservative management.
We present the case of a 31-year-old woman with:
* Nausea and vomiting since three days
* Unable to eat or drink without vomiting
* Epigastric pain after eating
* Feels weak
* No prior trauma or illness
* No fever, no diarreha, no hematemesis or bloody stools
* No other family members ill
See below the laboratory findings:
What do you think?
Signs of dehydration with secondary acute renal impairment and electrolyte disorders
Abdominals X-Ray were performed:
What do you see on the X-Rays?
* Apparent elevation of the right hemidiaphragm with obscuration of the right cardiac border
* Air – fluid level at the right upper quadrant: free air?
* Colonic air at the right upper quadrant (Chilaiditi)
* Apparent soft tissue mass at the right upper quadrant
* No apparent dilated bowel loops
* Elongated right liver lobe (Riedel lobe)
* Instability of the symphysis pubis
* Subphrenic abscess
* Hepatic abscess
* Anterior interposition of colon to the liver
* Loculated pneumothorax (mimick)
* Situs inversus – gastric air (mimick)
* Pneumobilia, portal venous gas (smaller amount)
Images from an abdominal CT-scan:
What do you see on the CT images?
* Anterior defect in the right hemidiaphragm
* Partial herniation of stomach and transverse colon
* Gastric outlet obstruction due to compression of the pyloric region of the stomach, with secundary dilatation with fluid
* Normal position of the gastro-esophageal junction and hiatus
* No signs of ischemia
* Collapse of the right middle lobe and partial collapse of the right lower lobe.
What is the most likely diagnosis?
Morgagni hernia of the diaphragm
Patient had a laparoscopic reduction of the hernia with mesh closure of the defect. No signs of ischemia at surgery.
Uneventful recovery with resolution of pain and normal intake the day after.
* Rare congenital diaphragmatic hernia (<5% of all CDH)
* Anterior (retrosternal)
* Right-sided (90%)
* Usually small
* +/- 30% symptomatic: respiratory distress (newborn), recurrent chest infections, abdominal symptoms
* Contents: omental fat, transverse colon (60%), stomach (12%)
* Treatment: surgical repair
> In symptomatic cases, some say also in asymptomatic cases: prevention of strangulation of hernia contents
* Differential diagnosis:
> Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture
> Diaphragmatic eventration / weakness / paralysis (abnormal contour / position of the dome)
> Cardiophrenic angle lesions ( pericardial fat pad, cyst, lipomatosis, tumor)