Dr. Pepe’s Diploma Casebook 149 – All you need to know to interpret a chest radiograph – Third Session – SOLVED

Dear Friends,

I am showing today the leading image of the third webinar. If you haven’t seen them, you can see the first one here and the second one here:

Chest radiograph belongs to a 24-year-old man with occasional episodes of fainting, currently asymptomatic.

What do you see?

Come back on Friday and enjoy the recording of the third webinar with the answer to this case and more information!

Click here to see the answer

Findings: PA chest radiograph shows convexity of the right outline of the middle mediastinum (A, arrow), suggesting dilatation of the ascending aorta. Some of you have mentioned aortic coarctation, which is not a good option because rib notching is not visible, and the aortic knob is unremarkable.
Given the patient´s age, a good possibility is congenital aortic stenosis.

Enhanced sagittal CT reconstruction shows dilatation of the ascending aorta (B, asterisk) and heavy calcification of the aortic valve (B, arrow). Axial CT demonstrated a malformed and calcified aortic valve (C, circle).

Final diagnosis: congenital aortic valve stenosis with post-stenotic dilatation

Congratulations to Renga, who was the first to mention the ascending aorta dilatation.
 
Teaching point: the middle third of the mediastinum is occupied by the aorta and pulmonary artery. Any mediastinal abnormality in this area should be suspected to have a vascular origin.

You can see on our youtube channel the webinar Prof. Cáceres has prepared discussing this case and others.

Cáceres’ Corner Case 214 – SOLVED

Dear Friends,

Presenting today radiographs of an 89-year-old woman with dyspnea and moderate fever.

Diagnosis:

1. Empyema
2. Mediastinal tumor
3. Pneumonia
4. None of the above

What do you see? Come back on Friday to see the answer!

Click here to see the answer

Findings: PA chest radiograph shows an opacity occupying the middle and lower right lung It is located anteriorly in the lateral view and has a well-defined posterior border.
The clue to the diagnosis lies with the bubbles of air within the opacity (A, red arrows) which resemble bowel loops in the lateral view (B, circle). The heart is displaced towards the left, but this finding cannot be evaluated because of the moderate scoliosis. In addition, a hiatus hernia is present (A-B, arrows).

Enhanced axial CT (C-D) demonstrates that the opacity consists mainly of fat containing some bowel loops.

Coronal and sagittal reconstructions show a large gap in the anterior right hemidiaphragm (E-F, circles), with herniation of bowel and abdominal fat into the hemithorax.

Final diagnosis: large Morgagni´s hernia simulating pulmonary disease.
 
Congratulations to xristoby, who was the only one who mentioned anterior diaphragmatic hernia.
 
Teaching point: Remember that any lower lung lesion adjacent to the diaphragm may arise from the abdomen, as demonstrated with the present case.

Dr. Pepe’s Diploma Casebook – All you need to know to interpret a chest radiograph – Second Session – SOLVED

Dear Friends,

Today I am presenting the leading case of the second webinar. The PA radiograph belongs to a 62-year-old man with hemoptysis.

Is the radiograph abnormal?
If so, what do you see?

Starting this week, I have decided to stop giving live webinars. They will be recorded and published at the end of the week, together with the answer to the case. You can see the first session here

Click here to see the answer

Findings: PA chest radiograph shows convexity of the aorto-pulmonary window (A, arrow) and an opacity in the upper left hilum (A, red arrow). The findings were not present in a film taken three years earlier (B, circle) and suggest a pulmonary process with mediastinal adenopathy.

Findings were overlooked and the chest was read as normal. Six months later the patient returned with acute right chest pain. PA chest shows two triangular pleural-based opacities (C, arrows) suggestive of Hampton’s humps. The convexity at the APW is larger (C, green arrow) and the hilar opacity has increased in size (C, red arrow).

Coronal CT shows the typical appearance of pulmonary infarcts at the right lung base (D, arrows). There is large adenopathy at the APW (D, green arrow) accompanied by a lung mass (D, red arrow).

Final diagnosis: carcinoma of the lung with mediastinal metastases and associated pulmonary infarcts.
 
Congratulations to S, who made a brilliant diagnosis.
 
Teaching point: Remember the importance of checklists. If a checklist had been used in the initial radiography, a CT would had been taken and the tumor would had been discovered earlier

If you would like to learn more about this subject, check the webinar Prof. Cáceres recorded explaining this cases and others! You can also check the first webinar here.

Cáceres’ Corner Case 213 – SOLVED

Dear Friends,

Today’s radiographs belong to a 46-year-old man.
Preoperative for knee surgery.

What do you see?

Leave your thoughts on the comments and come back on Friday to see the answer!

Click here to see the answer!

Findings: PA chest radiograph show increased size of both hila (A, arrows), more evident in the right side. There is also convexity of the aorto-pulmonary window (A, red arrow). The findings are highly suspicious of widespread lymphadenopathy, confirmed in the lateral view (B, arrow). There is also anterior bowing of the posterior tracheal wall by a rounded opacity in Raider´s triangle (B, red arrows).

Enhanced axial CT confirms enlarged hilar lymph nodes (C, arrows) as well as an adenopathy in the A-P window (D-E, red arrows).

The retrotracheal opacity was due to an aberrant subclavian artery arising from a Kommerel diverticulum (F-H, red arrows).

The patient had been diagnosed of sarcoidosis in 2015. Follow-up CTs in 2017 and 2019 did not show any change.
 
Final diagnosis: Sarcoidosis with an incidental aberrant right subclavian artery.
 
Congratulations to Manal Gebril, who was the first to make the diagnosis and to Gaborini, who described the aberrant right subclavian artery.
 
Teaching point: remember satisfaction of search. Some of you missed the occupation of Raider´s triangle and nobody mentioned the convex A-P window.

Dr. Pepe’s Diploma Casebook – All you need to know to interpret a chest radiograph – First Session – CASE 147 – SOLVED

There are some things which cannot be learned quickly, and time, which is all we have, must be paid heavily for their acquiring. They are the simplest things; and, because it takes a man’s life to know them, the little new that each man gets from life is very costly and the only heritage he has to leave

Dear friends, this quote from Ernest Hemingway serves as introduction to the next series of webinars. From October to March I intend to give a webinar every two weeks describing my basic approach to interpreting the chest radiograph. The subject is ample, and will continue with a second series in 2021.

To start, I am showing a preoperative PA chest radiograph for varices in a 60-year-old woman. The chest was read as normal, but there is an abnormality, difficult to detect.
Do you see it?

The answer was given during a webinar. You can watch the webinar here

Click here to see the answer

Findings: PA radiograph shows a small nodule overlapping the left cardiac border (A-B, arrows). The nodule was overlooked, and the chest was read as normal.

A chest radiograph taken four years later shows a marked increase in size of the nodule (C, arrow). Enhanced axial CT shows a non-enhancing low-density nodule (-30 H.U.)
(D, arrow). Needle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of hamartoma.

Final diagnosis: Pulmonary hamartoma, overlooked in the initial film
 
Congratulations to Uve, who discovered the nodule with a little help.
 
Teaching point: Remember that overlooking visible findings accounts for 50% of our errors. Using checklists is an excellent way to change an error into a discovery.

Cáceres’ Corner Case 212 – SOLVED

Dear Friends,

Today’s radiographs belong to a 53-year-old man with dysphagia. 

What do you see? 
Come back on Friday to see the answer!

Click here to see the solution

Findings: PA radiograph (A) is unremarkable. The lateral view shows a slight anterior bowing of the trachea (B, arrow) with an apparently dilated upper esophagus with an air/solid interface (B, red arrow).

These findings are well seen in the cone down view, which better shows a thickened retrotracheal stripe (C, red arrows), a sign that suggests esophageal pathology, among others.
For all of you who diagnosed achalasia there is a negative finding: the lack of occupation of the retrocardiac space (D, circle) which practically rules out dilatation of the lower esophagus.

Sorry to say that I do not have additional images. After receiving the possible diagnosis of esophageal tumor, the patient went to another hospital, where esophagoscopy and biopsy confirmed upper esophageal dilatation by a carcinoma of the middle third.
 
Final diagnosis: Carcinoma of the middle third of the esophagus with proximal dilatation and food retention.
 
Congratulations to Dr Ahmad who was the first to describe the findings.
 
Teaching point: this case emphasizes the value of clinical information in selected cases. I suspect that some of you would not have discovered the dilated esophagus in the lateral view if I had withheld the history of dysphagia :).

Cáceres’ Corner Case 211 – SOLVED

Dear Friends,

Today I’m showing chest radiographs of a 50-year-old woman with cough and sputum production.

What do you see?

You will have more images on Wednesday.

Dear Friends,

showing today CT images of the patient. What do you see?

Click here to see the CT images

Click here to see the answer

Findings: PA chest shows a small right lung, with a triangular opacity occupying the lower lung (A, arrow). The right heart border is not seen. The trachea and mediastinum are displaced to the right. In the lateral view the lower opacity occupies the lower lung from front to back (B, arrows).
This appearance is typical of combined RLL and RML collapse (obliteration of right heart border) and the most likely diagnosis is an obstructing lesion in the intermediary bronchus.

Enhanced axial CT shows marked narrowing of the intermediary bronchus (C, arrow). A caudal image shows marked dilatation of mucous-filled bronchi (D, arrows). This appearance indicates a long-standing obstruction and goes against a malignant process

Comparison with a previous radiograph (F) shows that the chest has not changed in comparison with the recent one (E). Bronchoscopy performed three years earlier demonstrated chronic stenosis of intermediate bronchus secondary to previous TB

Final diagnosis: Chronic TB changes of intermediary bronchus causing collapse of RML and RLL.
 
Congratulations to Maged Shaban and Yelgha who made the correct diagnosis of RLL and RML collapse
 
Teaching point: remember that central lobar collapse with bronchiectasis is rarely caused by malignancy.